Rev Mamerto Gueritz
(31 Jan 1823 - 8 Feb 1912)
Mamerto's family background in Spain, and his subsequent upbringing, educarion and career in England are outlined in a larger separate document, by an unknown descendant, of which the following is a partial transcription.
[In 1823] Jose Gueritz left Madrid, [and became] stationed at Jativa in Valencia, in command of a detachment of National Militia, and there a son was born, to whom the name of Mamerto was given in memory of his father's unfortunate friend.
In 1824, the King having overthrown the Constitution and the Liberals being taken and imprisoned or put to death, Jose Gueritz with great difficulty escaped to England where his wife and infant son rejoined him in 1826. He died in 1832 at Plymouth from an illness caused by cold and exposure in an abortive attempted invasion of Spain by the Constitutionalists in 1830.
He left a widow and two children, a son [Mamerto] and a daughter [Adelina] aged 10 and 5. His high character and misfortunes had gained for him the esteem and affection of a large number of influential friends and the children were offered every advantage of education etc. Mamerto Gueritz remained in the school kept by the Revd. R. Needham in which his father had taught French.
When 13 years of age he was taken into the office of W.H. Hawker Esq, a wine merchant of the highest reputation in Piymouth and here he served a seven years apprenticeship. He had already begun to show signs of a vocation to the sacred ministry of the Church and the way was opened to him by the kindness of friends and the help of a Clerical Society. He first studied for about a year and a half with the Revd. S. Feild, Vicar of Hatherleigh, [and] matriculated at: St. Edmund Hall, Oxford in 1845. He took his degree and. was ordained Deacon in 1848 and Priest in 1849, his first curacy being for Shepton Beauchamp and Barrington.
At the end of 1850 he returned to the Diocese of Exeter and after a year at Brixham during illness of the senior Curate and another year of Stoke Gabriel during the absence of the incumbent. He was appointed by the Bishop to the sole charge of Bigbury, the Rector of which Parish was contumacious and non-resident without License.
In 1856 Mr.Gueritz resigned this Curacy and licensed to Yealmpton but in the following year Bishop Philpotts requested him to take charge of Penzance during the absence of the Vicar from ill-health. He held this charge for three years and was then appointed by the Bishop to the Vicarage of Colyton, though he was not instituted until Aug 1860, the delay being caused by the separation of the Chapelry of Shute from the benefice. He held the Vicarage of Colyton until the end of 1901 when he resigned from ill-health.
His obituary was also published in the (Anglican) Church Times shortly after his death. To fully grasp the obituarist's commentary probably requires some slight understanding of the various currents and counter-currents of thought in Victorian Anglicanism. Quite apart from the impetus to existing faith and practice provided by John Wesley, for example, the innumerable varieties of nonconformism had already formed, or would duly form, their own 'low-church' denominations, and inevitably this led to a sort of 'High Church' or 'Anglo-Catholic' counterreformation, or Revival, within mainstream Anglicanism, often identified with Tractarianism and the so-called Oxford Movement, and John Henry Newman (who converted to Roman Catholicism in 1845).
It seems that Mamerto was very definitely High Church, in keeping with his Spanish heritage, and this didn't always go down too well will some of his parishioners. It also led to the notorious 'Socinian Burial' controversy later in his ministry (this will be revisited
The initials 'V.S.S.C.' at the end belong to the Rev Vincent Stuckey Strachan Coles (1845–1929), who became a friend of Mamerto when the latter was curate for his father John Stratton Coles (1810–1872), rector at St Michael's, Shepton Beauchamp from 1836 until his death.
The devoted son-in-law to whom reference is made was Rev Reginald Arthur (né Snook) Mortimer (1851–1904) who had been born in Colyton, had married Mamerto's daughter Mary Louisa Gueritz in 1878, and became curate at St Andrew's in Colyton from 1884 to 1889 and rector of St Mary Major in Exeter from 1896 until his death.
The Mr Le Geyt to whom reference is also made was Rev Charles James Le Geyt (21 Mar 1829–27 Dec 1877), rector of St Matthias, Stoke Newington from 1858 until his death.
The Oxford Movement in Practice:
The Tractarian Parochial World from the 1830s to the 1870s
George Herring, OUP
From this helpful tabulation of High Anglican clergy, we can see the principal stages of Mamerto's career
- Graduation from Oxford in 1848, ordained deacon in 1848 and priest in 1850
- Curate Shepton Beauchamp, 1848-1852
- Curate Bigbury, 1852-1857
- Curate Penzance, 1857-1860
- Vicar Colyton, 1860-1901
During the first decade there were also several temporary appointments:
I do somewhere hold a fair amount of information about the "lost decade" 1850-1860, which will certainly be uploaded when it comes to light!
He matriculated at St Edmund Hall, University of Oxford in 1845 and graduated BA in 1848, though I don't know what subject(s) he had read.
Clearly on a roll, he shortly afterwards married Anne Derby Lawrence on 29 May 1849.
8 JUNE 1849, Friday
At ST.GLUVIAS, on Monday last, Mr. Richard Nottle JAMES, to Juliana, youngest daughter of the late John DUNKIN, Esq., of PENRYN.
At PENZANCE, on Tuesday last, Andrew BAIRD, Esq., of GLASGOW, to Fanny Margaret, eldest daughter of Mr. Samuel YORK, of the former place.
At MADRON, on Saturday last, Mr. HICKS, of ST.JUST in PENWITH, to Miss Louisa WORSLEY, of PENZANCE; and Mr. David PHEBEY, to Miss Catharine, MOORE, both of PENZANCE.
At ST.AUSTELL, on the 31st ult., Mr. James ROBERTS, to Miss A. CALF, both of that place; and Mr. James GAVED, to Miss Eliza GAVED, both of GREAT POLGOOTH.
At ST.COLUMB MINOR, on the 31st ultimo, Mr. Thos. James TEAGUE, to Miss Martha TEAGUE, both of NEWQUAY.
At POUGHHILL, on the 22nd ult., Mr. Wm. BONETTA, to Mrs. Sarah CRUSE, both of that place.
At PLYMOUTH, on the 30th ult., by the Rev. C.M. Gibson, Vicar of St. Clement, George Rundle COOBAN, Esq., to Louisa, youngest daughter of Archibald B. GIBSON, Esq., both of PLYMOUTH.
At PLYMOUTH, on the 29th ult., the Rev. Mamerto GUERITZ, Curate of Shepton, Beauchamp, and Barrington, SOMERSETSHIRE, to Anne Derby, youngest daughter of the late Commander George LAWRENCE, R.N.
At PLYMOUTH on the 31 ult., Henri VIGNES, Esq., of BORDEAUX, to Cordelia Emily, only daughter of H. TOCKER, Esq., solicitor.
In LONDON, on the 31st ult., Charles Frederick MICHELMORE, Esq., of HIGHFIELD, near TOTNES, DEVON, to Sophia Harriet, eldest daughter of John EDYE, Esq., of EXETER.
At WHITE RODING, ESSEX, on the 29th ult., J. D. WILLIAMS, Esq., of Pierce Williams, in that county, to Emma Mary, eldest daughter of the Rev. H. BUDD, Rector of White Roding.
At LANGUICKE, on the 26th ult., - COURTIS, Esq., of BRISTOL, to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of the late Michael WILLIAMS, Esq., of SWANSEA.
Church of St Michael, Shepton Beauchamp,
and Church of St Mary, Barrington
At this time he was listed as curate of the church of St Michael at Shepton Beauchamp in Somersetshire (as the county was called in those days):
and of the Church of St Mary in nearby Barrington:
However, the baptism of their first child Mamerto George Gueritz on 6 Apr 1849, at which he is listed as assistant curate at Shepton Beauchamp, seems to have preceded this!
Aged 28, Mamerto Gueritz appears on the 1851 census at the Parsonage, 'Cumbers', in Brixham Totnes. He was a 'Priest of the Church of England Officiating Pro Tem' (i.e. 'for the time being'), and as a naturalised British subject born in Spain. His wife, Anne D., 31, was born in St Budeaux. His mother Antonia, 53, also a British subject but born in Spain, was listed as 'U', unmarried, but was actually a widow, and was living with them. (Antonia's husband, Jose Gueritz, died at the age of 34 and was buried in Plymouth) Their son, given in the census as Mamerto G. Gueritz, born in Shepton Beauchamp, Somerset, was 1 year old.
Mamerto's curacy at Shepton Beauchamp was from 1848 until 1852, and it has been remarked that in this first curacy he developed the abilities and attitudes that became the hallmarks of his lifelong ministry.
John Stratton Coles (1810–1872) was rector at St Michael's from 1836 until his death in 1872. He was succeeded by his son Vincent Stuckey Stratton Coles (17 Mar 1845–9 Jun 1929), from 1872 until 1884. VSSC's mother Eliza (d 1897), an ardent Tractarian, was daughter of Vincent Stuckey, a prominent banker; his sister was Julia M Coles, of whom there is occasional mention in the references above.
It was VSSC who, many years later, composed Mamerto's obituary in the Church Times, reproduced above.
Mamerto's sister, Adelina, born about 1828, who had just qualified as a domestic teacher, joined the rector's household in 1849 as governess to his young family – including VSSC of course. She subsequently (27 Jun 1865) married a considerably older man, Samuel Bartlett (1810–1882), though after his death might well have (re)joined forces with her brother.
Church of St Lawrence, Bigbury, Devon
In 1855 (at the time Edward Peregrine Gueritz was born) Mamerto was Curate of the Church of St Lawrence in Bigbury, Devon. Much of the church was rebuilt in 1872 by J D Sedding.
Church of St Mary, Penzance
West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser. Friday August 10th, 1860.
PENZANCE. ECCLESIASTICAL. The Bishop of Exeter [has] instituted the Rev. MAMERTO GUERITZ, M.A., of Lincoln College [sic], Oxford, curate of St. Mary's Penzance, and late master of Yealmpton School, to the vicarage of Colyton with Monckton, on the nomination of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter.
Church of St Andrew, Colyton
Mamerto became Vicar of St Andrews, Colyton in 1859/60, and remained there for the rest of his professional life.
The weekly Sherborne Mercury was established in 1737 by printer William Bettison and carried on by his widow Hannah. In 1749, printer and bookseller Robert Goadby who already published the Western Flying Post (founded 1744) came to an agreement with Hannah Bettison to amalgamate the Post and the Mercury. The combined paper was renamed the Western Flying Post, or Sherborne and Yeovil Mercury and General Advertiser.
Former vicar of Colyton, great name, great age.
Interesting vicar of Colyton 1860 - 1902. Mamerto Gueritz, BA, son of an officer in the Royal Walloon Guards who became a political refugee from Spain. During his incumbency the nave aisles Galleries were taken down and the whole church was re-roofed. He died in 1912 aged 89. His wife (b. Anne Derby Lawrence) predeceased him in 1902. They were married in 1849 in Plymouth.
Eccentricities and Controversies
He was certainly eccentric,
Henry Parry Liddon: Correspondence on Church and Faith
In 1860, Liddon learns of the Revd Mamerto Gueritz, who achieved a name as an editor and translator of Spanish writings:
Passing through Colyton yesterday, I heard much of Mr Gueritz (the people call him "Grits") that is very hopeful. He is training a choir: has an harmonium in the Chancel: has "abolished the old Reading Desk": has weekly Celebration: and - what particularly impressed one informant - has a "Sister of Mercy staying in the Vicarage who does good all day." She must, I think, be a (natural) sister of Mr Granville, of Sheviock. As Mr G. only came at midsummer - this is very well?49
49 Ibid, September 11, 1860. Gueritz remained in Colyton until 1901.
and (as already noted) controversial as regards theology, doctrine, liturgy, sacramental rites, ceremonial and, oh yes, bell-ringing.
He was also very shy socially, and prone to nervous attacks (breakdowns, as they would be described these days). But he was dogged in his beliefs, and wore down the parochial opposition by sheer persistence.
George Bernard Shaw (much admired by my grandfather Robert, but almost forgotten these days) in Saint Joan observed that the reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man.
Likewise, in Fitzgerald's 1859 rendering of Omar Khayýam's Rubáiyát, the 73rd stanza declares
Ah Love! could thou and I with Fate conspire
To grasp this sorry Scheme of Things entire,
Would not we shatter it to bits – and then
Re-mould it nearer to the Heart's Desire!
But such adaptation and re-moulding of the world is not necessarily an improvement, that is to say, is not welcomed by the majority of the revolutionary's contemporaries. The instigator or perpetrator may well be, in the extreme case, a psychopath - think of Lenin, Stalin or Pol Pot, for example.
But Mamerto was by all accounts a kindly man - he simply wanted to turn the Anglican clock back by two or three centuries towards the forms of observance practised by the Catholic church. He certainly didn't seem to believe that heretics should be burned to death, to purify their souls from apostasy, as had been maintained by the Roman Catholic church. The good people of Colyton would doubtless have regarded that as a step too far anyway!
An episode in which his principles collided most forcefully with the opinions of the wider public and the newspapers, involved his refusal to allow a Unitarian (or Socinian as described by Mamerto's obituarist), John Pavey, to be buried in the churchyard of St Andrews – in the event, the sexton defied him and dug the grave next to that of Pavey's wife, and the Unitarian minister read the Unitarian service of burial from outside the graveyard.
As a Unitarian of sorts myself, I wouldn't at all mind if my mortal remains were sent to the Matthew Mugg Catsmeat Processing Centre – much more useful than being cremated, and much less embarrassing than being donated to a medical school ("Bloody hell, look at this one, bet he wasn't popular with the ladies"), but these issues were taken quite seriously then, and quite possibly nowadays too in the more traditional denominations.
At the time in question, 1863, there was not yet a Unitarian chapel building in Colyton, let alone a Unitarian churchyard, but the cordial relations that had previously subsisted between Unitarian and Anglican ministers had evidently allowed deceased Unitarians to be interred in the churchyard of St Andrews, and a Unitarian service of burial to be read.
Incidentally, Unitarianism (in its various forms) goes back a great deal earlier than Anglicanism and is most certainly not a tin-pot Johnny-come-lately. It was defended at the (First) Council of Nicæa in 325 AD by Arius, but was swamped by the Trinitarian faction led by Athanasius. I think that was a disaster for the theological integrity of Christianity, but let's not get distracted.
Cutting to the chase, public and press were deeply unimpressed by this widely-reported episode.
I've made a reasonably thorough search for contemporary Press reactions to the case. Also of interest is the variety of ways in which the southwestern counties were referred to, compared with modern practice!
|# 1||Wiltshire Independent Thu 15 Sep 1864 p4|
col 3, 'Clerical Intolerance'
|# 2||Western Times Fri 16 Sep 1864 p8|
col 3, 'A Parson's Bigotry'
|# 3||Western Gazette Sat 24 Sep 1864 p4|
col 1, 'Priestly Intolerance'
|# 4||Reynolds Newspaper Sun 25 Sep 1864 p3|
col 1, 'The Church Really in Danger' [mostly illegible]
|# 5||Western Times Fri 21 Oct 1864 p6|
col 6, 'Colyton'
|# 6||Bridport News Sat 27 May 1865 p5|
col 6, 'Colyton, The Vicar brought to his Senses'
|# 7||Sherborne Mercury Tue 30 May 1865 p1|
col 6, 'Colyton'
|# 8||Dorset County Chronicle Thu 1 Jun 1865 p888|
col 1, 'Refusal to Bury a Dissenter'
|# 9||Bridport News Sat 17 Jun 1865 p8|
col 4, 'The Burial Case, Colyton'
|# 10||Sherborne Mercury Tue 20 Jun 1865 p4|
col 6, 'The Colyton Burial Case, Judgment of the Bishop of Exeter'
|# 11||Sherborne Mercury Tue 20 Jun 1865 p8|
col 7, 'The Burial Case'
'The Burial Case, Colyton'
Vestiges of Protestant Dissent,
by George Eyre Evans;
publ F & E Gibbons, Liverpool 1897
Colytonia: A Chapter in the History of Devon, Being Some Account of the Old and George's [Unitarian] Meeting, Colyton, from 1662 to 1898,
by George Eyre Evans
[Welsh Unitarian minister and antiquary (1857 -1939)];
publ F & E Gibbons, Liverpool 1898
by Michael Steer / Brian Randell]
Evans lists and profiles all the Colyton Unitarian ministers, those serving during the Anglican ministry of Dr Frederick Barnes (1807-1860) being as listed below:
- Joseph Cornish 1772-1823
(16 Dec 1750 - 9 Oct 1823)
- George Skey 1824-1826
- George Frederick Matthews 1826-1829
- John B Smith 1830-1832
- Frederick William Price 1833
- James Taplin 1834-1846
- James Cooper 1847-1848
- David Lewis EvansA 1850-1863
- Alexander McCombeB 1864-1870
(ca 1799 - 30 May 1876)
|A||Father of George Eyre Evans|
|B||Unitarian minister at the time of the Burial Dispute|
Although the Unitarian Chapel (presumably with a graveyard beside it) is clearly marked on this diagram, neither existed at the time of the Burial Dispute that kicked-off in 1864.
And neither exists now either, though of course Unitarians may still meet in a convenient assembly room somewhere in the town.
Sex, shopping, and social media (though I don't oppose any of them in particular as recreational pursuits) have overtaken religion as the dominant impulse in secular Western society, and Unitarianism has been in decline just as have Anglicanism and other forms of Christianity.
But I digress.
There are several issues relating to this dispute that I think need clarification.
1] The deceased Pavey had been baptised into the Church of England, but had he undergone Confirmation in his early teenage years (at which time we are supposed to accept for ourselves the Anglican beliefs which our godparents had accepted on our behalf at our baptism)?
I understand that such confirmation is essential if we are to be regarded as proper (Anglican) Christians, with all the attendant benefits of remission of sin and life everlasting, especially important when one dies, or contemplates doing so.
So was Mamerto Gueritz being somewhat inconsistent in his acceptance of Pavey's baptism only, as a basis for the latter's burial in hallowed ground? Or perhaps self-exculpatory, a get-out from a justifiable but massively unpopular position he'd taken on the grounds of conscience.
2] Unitarianism, in England anyway, is a Presbyterian denomination, that is to say, the minister (presbyter, from Greek presbuteros = elder) of a church or chapel is selected by the congregation – there is no hierarchy above him, whether administratively, liturgically or theologically – no bishops, no king, no cardinals, no pope.
So what the minister chooses to preach is up to him, providing a majority of the congregation are in broad agreement, or acquiescence, with it. If he accepts Unitarianism in its strictly Arian and Socinian implication, well that's what it says on the tin, and at least it's a relief that he actually accepts a Deity at all. There was at least one of the ministers listed above (I forget which) who continued to maintain the divinity of Christ - perhaps he was a Binitarian (yes, there certainly is such a denomination!)
The official Unitarian creed nowadays is discouraging for sesquitarians such as myself, and it does promote a "Don't ask, don't tell" attitude within individual congregations.
But there are no particular grounds to suppose that even in those days there was any strict collective adherence to Socinian beliefs, or for Mamerto to assume that Pavey did himself – he was a simple soul with a simple and uncomplicated faith, who didn't mess with theological subtleties. He just wanted to be buried next to his wife.
3] Since the advent of cremation and municipal cemeteries in the 1870's, it has become relatively easy for an atheist or a non-trinitarian, or their ashes, to be interred in unhallowed ground with the benefit of a non-Anglican service read over their mortal remains.
But what if there weren't any option but an Anglican churchyard? This was the dilemma facing the authorities back in 1864 when John Pavey died. Whether or not there was a Unitarian churchyard at that time, he had wanted to be buried next to his deceased wife in the Anglican churchyard. But that wasn't so easy. The rules were pretty strict, and Mamerto was quite right to maintain that the decision was his. And if his decision was guided by his own conscience, well, that was his business, and he said that Pavey could be buried on the north side of St Andrews, along with suicides, unbaptised children, and travelling salesmen (that's not a joke, actually, as witness the Killeen at Ardnagashel).
But public opinion was not on his side, and nor was the sexton.
Under English common law (ie sanctioned by judicial precedents), all [Anglican] parishioners and [other, non-Anglican] inhabitants have the right to be buried (or their ashes interred) in the churchyard or burial ground of the parish in which they reside. But they have no necessary right to be buried in a specific part of that churchyard or burial ground – this is entirely at the discretion of the Anglican minister in charge of the parish.
[This is still the law, and was so back in the 1860's, even though Roman Catholics, Jews, Unitarians (quasi-Judaic in their theology) and other riff-raff such as Nonconformists were discriminated against in many ways.
Sometimes it became fratricidal, as in the celebrated parliamentary exchange in 1835, when Daniel O'Connell, the Irish Roman Catholic leader, attacked Disraeli in the House of Commons. In the course of his unrestrained invective, he referred to Disraeli's Jewish ancestry. Disraeli replied, 'Yes, I am a Jew, and while the ancestors of the right honorable gentleman were brutal savages in an unknown island [aka 'painting themselves blue'], mine were priests in the temple of Solomon.']
Oddly enough, Anglican rules seem to have been tougher on suicides than on murderers.
The bodies of executed murderers were traditionally buried in the grounds of the prison concerned, presumably with a fairly perfunctory service read over them by the Prison Chaplain (though it's very hard to find any corroboration of this).
Following abolition of capital punishment in 1965 a convicted murderer was simply gaoled, and whether he died in prison, or subsequently to his eventual release, it was up to his relatives to arrange his funeral, and I can't find any mention of a funeral service being refused by the Church
4] Interestingly, there has been no mention of the Colyton Burial case in the annual Transactions of the Unitarian Historical Society, which have been have been published continuously since 1917, and so it can be safely assumed that there are no lingering hard feelings on the Unitarian side!
On the other hand, perhaps there was a feeling of triumphalism on the Unitarian side, that they'd done down the Anglicans. Also, for reasons I don't yet understand, Unitarianism entered a period of long decline soon afterwards (as did so many denominations) and the mote in another denomination's eye was no more embarrassing than a beam in ones own.
5] The newspaper reports that I've so far reproduced have all been very strongly critical of Mamerto Gueritz's position, and probably reflect the radical views of those newspapers themselves.
I'm very grateful to my cousin William Gueritz for two further reports, the first from a West Country newspaper rabidly supportive of the Unitarian point of view (and which incidentally does refer specifically to there having been both a Unitarian Chapel and a Unitarian churchyard at that time). Its tone is very ad hominem.
|#12||The Western Times, Exeter, Fri 28 Oct 1864 p6|
|Western Unitarian Christian Union, The Colyton Bigotry Case, More Gruel for G'ritz|
There is a serious disconnect in all the speeches, as to the precise meanings of 'Christian' and 'Unitarian' – adaptable to the convenience of the speakers.
I myself cannot accept Trinitarianism, specifically the divinity of Christ (or any meaning to the so-called Holy Spirit, who was sent onto the pitch pretty late in the game), let alone the bizarre idea of substitutional atonement ("He died to save us all", as the rather soppy Victorian hymn says, a remnant of the bizarre ritual practised by the early Jews who burdened a sacrificial goat with the sins of the community and drove it out into the wilderness to perish miserably, thereby expiating the male participants' private shortcomings.
The closest, and for me certainly by far the most acceptable, alternative to all this is modern Unitarianism – Presbyterian for sure, but with a theological script depending entirely upon the minister in charge – one goes along with what they say, and sometimes wishes they might go further, but that's good enough for starters.
Regardless of theological niceties, this whole episode leaves a very nasty taste in the mouth – so much grandstanding, theatrical religiosity and playing to the gallery (on high or here below). No pity or sympathy shown (even from the Unitarian minister Rev Alexander McCombe) to the lone clergyman trying to interpret his new-found mission verbatim et literatim. Not the Unitarians' finest hour by a long chalk.
And the second from an Anglo-Irish Anglican newspaper fervently supportive of Mamerto Gueritz.
|#13||The Constitution or Cork Advertiser, Tue am, 8 Nov 1864, p6
The name Cork Constitution can refer to two different newspapers that were published in Cork city.
The Cork Advertiser, which was published from 1799 to 1824, called itself the Cork Constitution in 1823.
The Cork Morning Post, which started publication in 1822 and ceased in 1924 renamed itself the Cork Constitution in 1873. ...
In its second incarnation, the Cork Constitution supported the union of Ireland with Great Britain, was the paper favoured by the Protestant population and patronised by clergymen of the Church of Ireland as well by officers of the British Army who were stationed in the area.
The paper ceased publication shortly after Irish independence
The trouble with all such debates is (for me in my declining years anyway) the use of elaborate litotes. It's an absolute bugger to work out what is actually meant. One really needs to know in advance whether the speaker is for or against the individual or issue in question.
That said, I think that Mamerto emerges from this pretty well. I'd say it's an honourable three-all score draw between the two sides.
The Way We Lived Then
by Jean Robin, publ Routledge, 13 Dec 2017
[This] is a detailed study of a nineteenth-century community. It is based on the life histories of all the inhabitants of the parish of Colyton in Devon, covering the period from 1851 to 1891 [...].
Chapter 3, relating to Mamerto Gueritz, is presented in pdf form above
by D. A. Gunn-Johnson, unpublished, 1 Jan 1994
The Ven David Gunn-Johnson is Archdeacon Emeritus in the Diocese of Exeter. He holds a Masters by Thesis on the topic of A Country Catholic, from the University of Lampeter. Following ordination he worked in posts in the Diocese of St Albans, before appointment as Rector of the Colyton Team Ministry and Rural Dean of Honiton [...]